Archive for November, 2010
When I say perspective, I am thinking more along the lines of depth and form in the subjects that we draw rather than the typical linear perspective. Linear perspective is very important to understand and master, you know, with the horizon line and vanishing points etc. This post is about dimensional drawing.
I want to share six very simple and basic rules that will help you endow each drawing with dimension.
The first, is the idea of objects sitting at different points along the ground plane. Typically we show this by drawing one object higher on the paper than another. Difference in Surface position.
This drawing with no other indications begins to suggest that the higher ball might be farther away simply because it is sitting in a different point along the surface. This is especially true when we can see the contact with the ground. In and of itself, however, it does not present an entirely convincing illusion of depth. But it’s a beginning.
The second is a difference in Size.
In this example, all we see is one object larger than the other. In and of itself, it may or may not mean that one is closer, but remember this rule, it can become a powerful cue to depth.
The next is combining these first two depth cues. Surface plus Size.
Now we definitely start seeing the illusion of depth. Most viewers would interpret this as two balls, with one closer than the other.
The fourth rule is Overlap.
While it may be possible that the one shape is simply a crescent that is pushed up alongside the circle, this appearance of overlapping will convince most people that one sphere is overlapping the other, therefore making a very clear statement of dimension and depth.
Next is Surface Lines. These are lines that travel across the contour or surface of the object and deliver a lot of information about the three-dimensional form. These lines may come in the form of stripes on a costume, shadows, or wrinkles, but they tell a lot about the form.
With these lines we can no longer mistake this for a coin, disc, or plate.
Finally, we have Foreshortening. This is where we see the shape receding into space and actually getting smaller as it goes back.
Now if we start combining all these elements, we can really get some perspective an depth into our drawings without getting very complicated.
Now let’s apply these rules to some simple drawings.
Can you see the other dimensional cues that exist in this drawing?
Notice the size differential of the individual elements like the eyes. This is not meant to be a mechanical thing. You should feel it more than anything, but sometimes it helps to use a few reminders (like perspective lines) to keep the perspective working right. Again, notice the little things like the eyebrows and how they overlap the head. Every little thing should contribute to the effect we want. All the shapes on the far side are smaller and therefore appear to be receding in space. Simple idea, but if we can see it and train ourselves to draw this way, our drawings will become much more dimensional and appealing. They won’t look amateurish. Amateurs draw flat because that’s all they know how to do.
Make a concerted effort to utilize these “rules” every time you draw so they become second nature to you. Even your rough sketches should be indicating a lot of this kind of thinking.
What’s the difference between doodles, thumbnails, and comps? Doodles are taking you from the “nothing” to the “what” (many refer to this as blue-sky thinking). Thumbnails take you from the “what” to the “how”. Comps take you from the “How” to the “best how” or “more complete how”.
Thumbnails are not defined by what you are seeing on the paper, but rather the purpose and thought process that occurs in your mind. In the end, you must define what a thumbnail is by what it means to you. In time, you will come to discover what works best for you and your particular style.
Thumbnails seem to mean slightly different things to different people. For example, an animator will describe them one way, while a landscape painter may offer a different explanation. But there are some basic characteristics that are universal. Let’s examine these characteristics so that as you develop your style and skill, you have something to guide and direct you.
Thumbnails are Small. Why? Small makes it easier to view them as a whole and not get sucked into the details. When the size gets big enough, the natural inclination of the viewer is to start focusing in on the details. The larger the image, the more we tunnel in on the parts rather than the whole. By keeping it small, it is much more natural to see it from corner to corner in one glance, which gives us the ability to judge it as an entire composition, never being distracted by minutia.
Thumbnails are Simplified. Why? We want to work from general to specific. This works hand in hand with the small concept above. When it is simplified there are few details to speak of, so again, it is easier to evaluate it as a whole composition. It stands to reason that our initial efforts should be focused on general ideas and not the nuance of details. By eliminating the details we are designing the larger, more general shapes. If the design works at this level then we can embellish it, adding detail on top of the basic arrangement. If it does not work well at this level, no amount of embellishment can solve its short-comings.
Thumbnails are Quick. Why? Being able to execute one thumbnail quickly gives us the ability to execute many thumbnails in a relatively short period of time. We are trying to generate numerous little pictures to look at without becoming burned out and spending lots of time (time is money). These little pictures give us options, and open up a variety of approaches to our project. The more choices we have to choose from, the more likely we can pick one that is going to work well. Our creativity becomes realized in the process of making these choices. Having options is always better.
Thumbnails explore a Variety. Why? There would be little point in creating a bunch of little pictures that all look about the same. Because they are small, and quick, and simple, this is an ideal time to ask ourselves, “what if I tried an entirely different approach?” If we don’t find out by drawing five or ten more thumbnails, we rob ourselves of the benefits of this exploratory phase. Once we have drawn a few, we need to step back and think about what new direction we could take to make it look completely different. We need to identify elements and deliberately attack them in the opposite way. For example, if an object is dark in one version, let’s try it light in another version. From there we will create a few more, then we repeat this process over and over until we have a wide variety to choose from.
They are Expendable. Why? Because the fact is, we are not ever going to use the vast majority of thumbnail sketches. Think about it. If we do 25 thumbnails for one project, how many will we wind up using? One. That means we throw out 24. If we spend too much time on them, they represent too much of an investment and it’s harder to drop the poor drawings because we just spent too much time on them. We ruin our objectivity. If they are done quickly, it’s easier to say to ourselves, “this only took me a few minutes and it just isn’t working too well, I’ll just draw another and I think I can make it better.” In the end, the overall improved result should justify the time spent on a bunch of thumbnails we don’t use, because the one we wound up with is great!
All of these things are closely related. Quick, simple, small etc. A key aspect of the thumbnail is that it should be serving as a vital part of our creative process. Creativity is defined as coming up with an original idea that is useful. Sometimes great ideas just pop into our heads. Okay fine, but usually we need to be able to conjure up ideas on demand. This is not an instant event, but a process. It needn’t be a long drawn out ordeal, but it does take a little time and attention. And we do have to realize that one step leads to another, then another, then another. After some time, some great ideas have emerged and stand out clearly over the rest.
We should be able to start with an empty brain (devoid of any ideas), doodle around, start to get into it, generate some ideas, modify them, improve them, try some more, get excited, realize that there are some other, completely different approaches, explore them, discover some more ideas, realize that most of these are crappy, start focusing in on the ones that really seem to be working, make them a bit better still, and finally come down to two or three great thumbnails that will work quite well. Then all we have to do is make our choice (then we’ve achieved creativity).
Many of the thumbnails we’ve done will be easy to label as useless. Instead of trying to erase and correct a bad thumb, just move on to a brand new one. It will be a no-brainer to know which ones we should discard. There will be another group that we may think is not too bad, but again, once we compare them to the best ones, it shouldn’t be too hard to set these average ones aside. If we find ourselves in a pickle because we have three different thumbs that all look great, well, what a nice position to find ourselves in. Ask some other people, get some feedback and make the choice.
By the way, don’t throw any of your thumbnails away (except for the really horrible ones). You never know when they may yet come in handy.
It’s all about exploration, trial and error (don’t forget that the error is an important part of the equation), and generating options. This is what creativity is all about. The concept that creativity is just having an idea magically pop into your head, is myth.
This is what thumbnailing is all about, not the specifics of size, medium etc.
Of course as artists, we should take advantage of the thumbnail process to refine the underlying design as we go. In other words, with each sketch, we are looking at all of the design components and visual elements and evaluating it. Most of what we are judging as we compare one thumbnail against another, is its design merit. Where’s the focal point, is there unity and variety, flow and dynamics, etc? This is a great stage to be doing this, for if we can determine that the staging is not right, it’s so easy to whip up another sketch that addresses the problem. Once we solve one problem however, we usually realize that there is another weakness appearing, so we move on to address that problem.
There are a lot of things to be looking at that will eventually make the composition work well. If we don’t recognize or address some of these issues until we have invested hours and hours of drawing time, it can become very difficult if not impossible to correct. It should become easier to see the problem in the simplified thumbnail, and it is certainly a lot easier to change.
This process is what accounts for so many versions being done in the thumbnail process. We shouldn’t be creating 25 thumbnails just randomly. If you try to come up with a bunch of thumbnails just to impress your instructor and somehow avoid this process of creativity and developing the quality of design, you clearly will be frustrated and come away thinking this whole thing is a waste of your time.
It is important to thumbnail the overall composition. To this end we must frame our thumbnails in a box with the appropriate aspect ratio. We should know the size and dimension of the finished product, therefore, design the thumbnails in the same dimensions scaled down.
We should also do thumbnails in a full value range, meaning blacks and whites and two or three shades of gray. The value structure of the composition is the single most important element of the composition, so don’t move onto larger comps until you have established the design with these values in mind.
You can also do color thumbnails. Not everybody feels the need to do these, but the same principals would apply. General colors, simplified and small to establish the basic structure.
Along with doing the entire composition, you can thumbnail any segment or part of the picture. For example, you may want to explore the pose of the character in thumbnails. This wouldn’t be a substitute for the entire composition, but additional studies to nail down the gesture and staging of the character. It would be a matter of personal preference whether you did these pose thumbnails first and then added the rest of the composition around the selected pose, or the other way around.
There are times that for one reason or another we elect not to spend much time on thumbnails. We need to make sure that we are opting for this course for a good purpose and not just because we are being lazy or don’t feel comfortable thumbnailing.
As I mentioned in the previous post, Draftsmanship is the ability to control the pencil and render convincing illusions. Here are some examples that have amazed people around the world. You may look at these and respond as many have by thinking, “Those can’t really be drawings”.
These pieces are perhaps the most amazing examples of draftsmanship that I’ve ever seen. But what they have in fantastic rendering, they lack in originality and design. Why? because they are portraying the lion and tiger as they appear in any number of pictures. That is to say photographs. When you adhere this faithfully to realism, you do so at the expense of your individual inventiveness and sense of design.
I believe that these exceptional drawings are most certainly created from photographic reference.
But I also believe that it is important for the artist to contribute his/her own creative interpretation and invention to the art, modifying and embellishing things from what they actually are in the world, so that they become uniquely beautiful and imaginative. It is a personal decision that we each must make (how much to deviate from reality in pursuit of the “ideal”). In illustration, we can call this “stylization“.
Here are some more drawings that are finely rendered, yet still offer a small degree of artistic interpretation.
The rendering is as realistic as it can be, but the composition here leans to the abstract in the sense that we are not exactly sure what we are seeing. We tend to accept some of this form as an abstract shape (we recognize the hands, of course). We know it is flesh, but not sure what part of the anatomy.
They are harmless enough, usually hands gripping the soft flesh of a leg. Because of the tight cropping, the forms become more abstract. The influence of the artist’s choice and decision is an important part of this design.
In this one, the rendering is still very realistic, but the hair has been styled to surround the face and make a subtle design statement. This could also be styled in the photograph, but does represent to influence of the artist.
This work is more of a fantasy image. Very realistically handled, but beginning to assume a feel of something aside form straight photo-realism.
Okay, enough of this stuff. It’s pretty amazing, but what if we don’t wish to render in such a way? What if we CAN”T render with such realism? To whatever extent we do not wish to approach our drawing with such detail, we can infuse our work with a sense of design and original ideas that will more than make up for the difference in draftsmanship. When we exaggerate, simplify, and redesign reality, or make up something completely imaginary, we can call this stylization. Truth be known, it may actually be easier for most of us to earn a living by not doing the type of work that we see above. That is, if we can create marvelously delightful, original, and adorable images like we will look at below, we will probably find an easier voice in the marketplace. Let’s move from the hyper-realism to strength in design and originality.
While the actual lines faithfully depict a ram and flamingos, the idea of combining them together makes for a unique image.
Likewise, the above image by Hoon, is drawn with great skill, but does not leave it to skill alone. The concept is full of interesting and innovative ideas.
Again, this piece by Rebeca Puebla takes a lot of skill to draw and paint, but also has a very unique and interesting mood and style.
I’m not exactly sure what these images are by Japanese artist Kazuki Takamatsu, but I know I’ve never seen anything like them before.
Now I will just load a whole bunch of images. I won’t say much. Just look at them, and study them. Notice how they use strong design and imaginative ideas to create images that are wonderful, fun and very very marketable. Many of these do not require the super human skills of realistic rendering that we started out with, but they are just as valid and worthy. Each artist has to find hie/her own voice through the style and techniques they develop. What they all have in common however, is that they must be appealing and interesting to the viewer. Each in their own way. Enjoy.
I hope you enjoyed these. I don’t claim to like all of them equally, but they show a wide variety of stylization and design.